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Risk of Death in Homeless Women

“In studies from a total of 7 cities, the risk of death among homeless women was greater than that among women in the general population by a factor of 4.6 to 31.2 ….”

Cheung, Angela M., and Stephen W. Hwang. “Risk of Death among Homeless Women: A Cohort Study and Review of the Literature.” CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal 170.8 (2004): 1243–1247. PMC. Web. 27 Apr. 2016.


Head Injury Rate in Homeless Men

“Our study suggests that the GH (general homeless population) had rates (of head injury) about 14 times higher and that those who were low-income housed had similar rates. The subgroup of individuals who are chronically homeless and have drinking problems had rates about 400 times higher.”

Svoboda, T., and J. T. Ramsay. "High Rates of Head Injury among Homeless and Low-income Housed Men: A Retrospective Cohort Study." Emergency Medicine Journal 31.7 (2013): 571-75. Web. 13 May 2015.


Death from Drug Abuse

“Admissions for drug-related conditions raise the hazard of death by 4-fold but among this group homelessness adds a further 7-fold risk. Homelessness doubles the risk of mortality among patients admitted for circulatory diseases, and trebles it among respiratory patients.”

Morrison, D. S. "Homelessness as an Independent Risk Factor for Mortality: Results from a Retrospective Cohort Study." International Journal of Epidemiology 38.3 (2009): 877-83. Web.


Cellulitis: Tucson incidence
“The top health problems in area hospitals from homeless patients with three or more ED visits are ‘Substance related’ (72%), ‘Behavioral health’ (42%), and ‘Cellulitis/skin abscess’ (18%). Cellulitis was the top infectious diagnosis.”

John, Tanner Todd. "Assessing the Need for a Medical Respite Center for the Homeless in Tucson, Arizona." Diss. U of Arizona, 2016. Print.


Cellulitis: definition

“Cellulitis is a spreading bacterial infection just below the skin surface. It is most commonly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes or Staphylococcus aureus.”

cellulitis. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. (2008).


Cellulitis: complications

“The following may result if cellulitis isn't treated or treatment doesn't work:

• Blood infection (sepsis)

• Bone infection (osteomyelitis)

• Inflammation of the lymph vessels (lymphangitis)

• Inflammation of the heart (endocarditis)

• Meningitis

• Shock

• Tissue death (gangrene)”

Berman, Kevin, MD, PhD. "Cellulitis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Web. 27 Apr. 2016.


Primary Care MD Shortage

“Shortages of PCMDs are expected to reach 45,000 by 2020 and grow to 66,000 by 2025 (Association of American Medical Colleges, 2011). The prospect of PCMD shortages has become an increasing concern in light of the expected increased demand for primary care services that is driven by population growth, an aging and sicker population, and insurance expansions under the Affordable Care Act (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2013).”

Buerhaus, Peter I., et al. "Practice characteristics of primary care nurse practitioners and physicians." Nursing outlook 63.2 (2015): 144-153.


Co-Housing Increase

“On the negative side, the nation’s homeless assistance system is overloaded, and a great many people who have not benefited much from the economic recovery remain at risk:

• Almost 7.7 million people were living doubled up with friends and family in 2013, which is an increase of 67 percent since 2007. The majority of people who go into shelter report that they have come directly from a doubled up living situation, which means this group of people is the most at risk of future homelessness.

• Over 6.4 million poor households were burdened with severe housing cost—paying over half of their income in rent each month—in 2013, representing an increase of 25 percent since 2007.

• On any given night, there are approximately 154,000 more people experiencing homelessness than there are beds available to assist them.”

"Just Released: The State of Homelessness in America 2015." National Alliance to End Homelessness:. Web. 27 Apr. 2016.


Chicago Homeless Population Explosion


The new face of homelessness is families. An estimated 140,000 homeless people live in the city including thousands of public school students in shelters, in tents, in parks or just in whatever place they can find across Chicago.”

"A Story the City Won't Discuss: Homeless Population Explosion." ABC7 Chicago. Web. 27 Apr. 2016.


Medicare Spending

“Based on a comparison of CBO’s August 2010 and March 2015 baselines, Medicare spending in 2015 will be about $1,200 lower per person than was expected in 2010, soon after passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA).”

"The Facts on Medicare Spending And Financing." The Facts on Medicare Spending and Financing. Kaiser Foundation, 24 July 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2016.


Scope of Practice

"scope of practice: The extent and limits of the medical interventions that a health care provider may perform."

"scope of practice." McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. 2002. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 27 Apr. 2016


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